The significance of lightweight materials has grown increasingly in the energy, defense, and transportation sectors given their key role in contributing to fuel savings and achieving higher energy efficiency. The cross-cutting ability of materials, including magnesium, advanced steels, carbon fiber composites, ceramics, and carbon nanotubes, allows for improvement in the performance of several systems and applications such as medical technology, alternative energy sources, wind turbines, and pressure vessels.
Lightweight materials such as high-strength steel, aluminum alloys, glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composites, and carbon fiber have replaced traditional steel components and cast iron in the automotive sector, providing several opportunities for next-generation vehicles. The weight of any vehicle is a crucial factor for fuel economy and emission reduction. Following the same principle, lightweight materials such as titanium-based composites, titanium aluminides, and hybrid materials are also being used in aircraft manufacturing. Researchers have also been developing lightweight construction materials such as graphene and aerographite, which have the highest stability and therefore enable reduction in waste and energy saving.
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