Bacteremia is a condition in which there is presence of viable bacteria in the blood. It may cause as a result of untreated wound, surgical procedure or infected injection. Occult bacteremia usually occurs in children. In this type, there is bacterial infection in blood, and the patient shows no symptoms other than fever. Some of the patients may have runny nose and cough. Main causative agent of occult bacteremia is Streptococcus pneumonia. Due to generic symptoms, the disease is usually misdiagnosed and incorrect treatment is given to the patient. Frequently, bacteria in the blood tend to accumulate on artificial implants such as orthopedic implants, heart valve and others. This colonization leads to consistent release of bacteria in the blood stream leading to lethal complications. Chances of developing bacteremia increases in case of immune suppression, which can be a result of HIV infection or induced during organ transplant. Common symptoms of bacteremia include fever, chills, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, shortness of breath and anxiety. Bacteremia is effectively diagnosed through blood test to detect the presence of bacterial infection. Microbial culture method, differential staining and microscopic observation are some of the commonly used methods for diagnosis of bacteremia.
Antibiotics are the mainstay for treatment of bacteremia. Infection due to antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major challenge faced by physicians. There has been a rise in infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic is an FDA approved treatment for MRSA bacteria. The drug is manufactured by Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. under brand name CUBICIN. As majority of the treatment involves prescription of generic drugs, the market is mainly driven by volume sales. Low cost drugs have helped in effective market penetration in developing and under developed countries.
Accurate diagnosis in early stages has been a major reason leading to complexities. Companies have developed low cost handy tests methods involving immunochromatography technique. Although the technique has lower accuracy, it can be used for at-home or on-field diagnosis. Development of new drugs for treatment of bacterial infections is expected to fuel the market with new products. Currently University of Cologne in collaboration with German Research Foundation is conduction clinical trials in phase III. The research involves Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Clindamycin, Linezolid, Flucloxacillin, Cloxacillin, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, and Cefazolin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia treatment. Shifting paradigm towards rapid tests allows faster diagnosis of bacteremia.
Developing and under developed countries which are majorly a part of Asia Pacific, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and have higher prevalence of infectious diseases. There also exists casual approach towards symptoms such as cough, fever and runny nose, which could be a result of occult bacteremia. Moreover inconsistent treatment may also lead to resistance for drug treatment. According to World Health Organization (WHO), around 35 million individuals across the globe are diagnosed with HIV infection. Furthermore over 95% of HIV infected individuals live in developing countries, majority of them in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 25 million people are HIV positive. This is one of the reasons for increasing prevalence of bacteremia in developing countries. Surge in orthopedic surgeries due to trauma, and arthritis is also expected to add to customer base for bacteremia market. Increasing awareness towards infectious diseases, and developing economic conditions are expected to change the market trends. In countries such as India, China, Brazil, Mexico and other developing countries, trend for preventive healthcare is growing gradually. Hence these countries will be the main focus for bacteremia market in the future.